Medical Conditions

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Women vary greatly in their menstrual cycles: what is normal for one may be abnormal for another. Adolescents in particular may have tremendous variability in their cycles until their hormone levels balance out after several years of menstruation. This article discusses the definitions that doctors use to determine if a woman's bleeding should be classified as abnormal.
Adenomyosis is the presence of uterine lining cells growing within the muscle wall of the uterus. It is a benign condition that is often mistaken for fibroids, but is much less common than fibroids. Adenomyosis occurs in about 10% of women.
This article discusses the symptoms, characteristics, and treatment options for cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancers.
Chronic Pelvic Pain
Chronic pelvic pain is described as abdominal pain that is not associated with menstrual cramps occurring six months or more. Approximately 15-20% of women experience chronic pelvic pain. Often the cause is undiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
Cramps (Dysmenorrhea)
Dysmenorrhea means painful cramps during your period. Cramps are very common and can occur at any age, but severe cramps tend to occur more often in the late teens and early twenties. This type of abdominal pain usually starts when your period begins and peaks during the first day or two, when flow is heaviest.
The lining tissue of the uterus is called the endometrium. Each month (except during pregnancy) this lining is shed through the cervix and into the vagina during the menstrual period. However, some of the blood and lining cells may exit the uterus in the wrong direction, flowing up through the fallopian tubes and into the abdominal cavity. For unknown reasons, in some women these uterine lining cells may grow outside the uterus. This condition is called endometriosis. The blood and other biochemicals released by the endometriosis cells begin to irritate the surrounding tissues, causing pelvic pain. Eventually the body may form scar tissue around these injuries, which can lead to more pain.
Fibroids are benign tumor-like growths in the muscle walls of the uterus. There are several different types, classified by where they grow.
Heavy Menstrual Bleeding
Menorrhagia is the medical name for very heavy menstrual bleeding (soaking through a sanitary pad or tampon every hour for more than a few hours) that lasts longer than seven days. It is a common form of abnormal uterine bleeding.
Urinary incontinence (UI), the involuntary leakage of urine from the bladder, affects some 25 million adults, 75-80% of them women.
Ovarian Cysts
An ovarian cyst is a collection of excess fluid in the ovary. The formation of fluid around a developing egg is a normal process in all ovulating women, but sometimes, for reasons doctors do not yet understand, too much fluid is formed. The follicle containing the egg expands, forcing the ovary to expand as well, and this may be experienced as pressure or pain in the pelvic area. On the other hand, some women do not feel the cyst at all, and it may only be discovered during a routine gynecological exam.
Overgrowth of the Uterine Lining (Hyperplasia)
Hyperplasia or overgrowth of the uterine lining is an accumulation of uterine lining cells that can occur when periods are infrequent or too light. The condition is also known as endometrial hyperplasia, because the technical word for the lining of the uterus is endometrium.
Pelvic Congestion Syndrome
Pelvic congestion syndrome is a condition in which the veins in the pelvis become stretched, widened, and congested with blood, similar to varicose veins in the legs. It occurs when the valves that control blood flow to the heart leak, allowing the blood to flow backward and pool in the pelvic veins. The organs affected are the uterus, ovaries and vulva.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and/or ovaries caused by migration of bacteria usually acquired from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), particularly gonorrhea and chlamydia. It can lead to infertility,ectopic pregnancy,chronic pelvic pain or other serious consequences.
Pelvic Pain
Pelvic pain is often caused by a number of related medical conditions, including pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis. A number of minimally invasive options are now available for reducing or eliminating pelvic pain.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS is a common reproductive hormonal disorder that prevents ovulation and leads to an increased accumulation of male hormones. The ovaries become filled with small cysts, further blocking ovulation. Because of the increase in male hormones, a woman may experience excess hair growth, oily skin, acne and infertility, in addition to irregular, heavy periods.
Polyps (Uterine Polyps)
Uterine polyps are small, benign protrusions of tissue that grow on the uterine lining ( endometrium). They are overgrowths of the same kind of cells as the lining itself and may appear as finger-like projections or little mushrooms. As they grow, they become fragile and bleed, and as such, they are a common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.
Prolapse (pelvic organ prolapse)
Pelvic organ prolapse or POP is a condition in which one or more of the organs in your pelvic cavity -- uterus, vagina, bladder and rectum - has fallen below its natural position in the pelvis.
Scar tissue (adhesions)
Adhesions are bands of scar tissue that form during healing from pelvic surgery, infection or endometriosis. Although the formation of scar tissue is a normal part of the healing process, adhesions can be problematic because they cause parts of the body that are not normally connected to stick to each other.
Tubal Pregnancy (Ectopic Pregnancy)
An ectopic pregnancy, also called a tubal pregnancy, occurs when a fertilized egg fails to make its full journey into the uterus and, instead, implants itself in the fallopian tube and begins to grow there. and begins to grow there. The fallopian tube cannot support a pregnancy.
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Last updated on Sep 29, 2023